Showing posts from September, 2015

Today in History: Sultan to perform Hajj

The Sulu Sultan perform the pilgrimage in 1898. His arrival at Singapore from Labuan in transit to Mecca was reported by The Strait Times on February 3, 1898. 

Prehistory of Sulu

Stone Age (c. 50,000 - c. 500 BC)

New Stone Age (c.5,900 - c. 5,220 BC)
"Then on the island of Sanga-Sanga, in the southern end of the Sulu Archipelago, a cave was found at the inner edge of a small cove. The cave was used by human habitation between 5,900 and 5,220 years before the birth of Christ. On the cave floor were debitage of living in a marine enviornment: tons of shells broken open; Palaeolithic types of tool knapped from obsidian, volcanic stuff, andesite, cryptocrystalline quartz and silicified wood; tools made from bone; and an adze made from the thick hinge of the Tridacna gisas, the giant clam."[1]
"The oldest in the region of Southeast Asia is from the 13th millennium B.C., and the Sanga-Sanga cave pottery was among the first pottery to appear in the Philippines. It is the first true sign of an attempt by humans in this part of the world to consciously include, on a wholly pragmatic object, an imprint of what lifts humans above the beasts. It is highly pro…

Sinug in the Language Tree

"The principal branches of the Malayo-Polynesian Language Family. Orange is Outer Western Malayo-Polynesian, dark red is Inner Western Malayo-Polynesian, green is Central Malayo-Polynesian, purple is South Halmahera–West New Guinea languages, and pink is Oceanic. (Some areas with oceanic languages are not visible on this map.)"

Arabic and Persian Loanwords in Tagalog Lexicon

Sulu and Champa Empire

Philippine history Teodoro Agoncillo claims that Buranuns, the natives of Sulu, have had historical experience with the Orang Dampuan or the "People of Champa"[1]

In another book, it is claimed that the Orang Dampuans were vassals of the Sri Vijaya Empire who established trading colony with the Buranuns of Sulu, eventually settled in Taguima (now Basilan) and become the Yakan ancestors. [2]
"Later, after the island had come under the dominion of Sri-Vishaya, Champa ships came again to Sulu. That they continued to trade there is substantiated by the claim in an early Sulu manuscript that in the century before the arrival of the Spaniards from four hundred to five hundred junks arrived annually from Cambodia, Champa and China, with which Sulu principally traded. At that time the island is said to have been very densely populated and to have been one of the great trade centers of the Archipelago." [3]

Sulu and the Empire of Brunei

The Sultanate of Brunei ruled during the 14th to the 16th century. Its territory allegedly covered the northern part of Borneo and the southern Philippines. What was its relationship with Sulu?

Sulu and the Chinese Yuan Dynasty

James Warren mentioned in his book that the Sulu's interaction with China maybe as early as the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368).

Sulu and the Chinese Ming Dynasty

There were recorded visits from Sulu to the imperial court of China during the period of the Ming Dynasty. The Ming Dynasty was in power from 1368 to 1644.

"Phonetically "Su-lu"(蘇祿), this undoubtedly represents the polity of Sulu/Jolo situated in the area which is today the southern Philippines. For some relevant literature, see Mills (1970; 61, 216, 218), Scott (1984 and 1989) and Zhong-shan University Southeast Asian Historical Research Institute (1980; 75-93, 196-242). For information on further Chinese sources relating to this polity, see Chen, Xie and Lu (1986; 412-13, 1048)."
Relevant entries (12 records)
(11 Sep 1417)
(18 Sep 1417)
(7 Oct 1417)
(22 Oct 1417)
(26 Sep 1420)
(15 Nov 1420)
(12 May 1421)
(16 Aug 1423)
(6 Nov 1424)
(1 Feb 1426)
(27 Oct 1427)
(26 Aug 1610)

Sulu and Melaka Empire

Between 1400 and 1511 was the period of the Melaka Empire for a period of 111 years.

Sulu and the Sri Vijaya Empire

7th to the 10th century, roughly 400 years, Nusantara was dominated by the Sri Vijaya Empire ruled from Palembang, South Sumatra.

Sulu and the Majapahit Empire

Sulu as a Sultanate was established circa 15th century at the twilight of the Madjapahit Empire, the latter have ruled the Nusantara since the 13th century or for more than two hundred years. Where and how was Sulu during these periods in the history of the Malay World?
The Majapahit was Buddhist. In the Kretagama Nagara, King Sri Rajasanagara is considered as an incarnation of Shiva. 
In Canto 13 and 14 are names of areas that were under the sway of the Majapahit [1]. "Solot" is considered Sulu [ref].
[1] Kretagama Nagara